Ask Seller a Question. Title: Principles and Applications of the Twelve Publisher: Light Technology Publishing. A workbook for all ages. Learning to live the Universal Laws; exercises and illustrations throughout. Archangel Michael first appeared to Leia Stinnett in August in the form of a glowing blue light.
He announced, I am Archangel Michael. Together we will save the children.
Michael s appearance was a turning point in Leia s life and career. These delightful books promote spiritual education for children through the adventures of two Peruvian children and their master teacher. Leia sums up her life as one great adventure. She never knows from day to day where her path will take her.
She continues her own journey while assisting others as an author, spiritual teacher, and intuitive counselor. Visit Seller's Storefront. Books should arrive within business days for expedited shipping, and business days for standard shipping. The Essay , originally designed as an appendix to a new edition of the Bible, was widely respected for its scholarship. This work claimed to find the sources of Roman Catholic idolatry in the Phoenician corruption of sacred history.
The book appeared posthumously, in In the wake of the revolution, Cumberland was called upon to replace the nonjuring bishop of Peterborough, Thomas White. From this time until his death, Cumberland administered his diocese diligently but with declining efficiency as old age took its toll. Intellectually, Cumberland busied himself with studies in ancient chronology.
He died after suffering a stroke on October 9, De Legibus Naturae was a theoretical response to a range of issues that came together during the later s. The immediate political circumstances were English debates over the toleration of religious dissent. The negotiations failed, resulting in the rise of more strident demands from dissenters for a pluralist, toleration-based settlement. For some Latitudinarian Anglicans, notably Samuel Parker, such demands were unacceptable. For Parker, natural law required nonconformists to submit to the legal requirements imposed by the sovereign for the common good.
Although Parker and others attempted to demonstrate that they were not Hobbists, their attempt to justify extensive sovereign power appeared to undermine their avowed commitment to natural obligation. Cumberland sought to do both in De Legibus Naturae. A law was properly the command of a superior, in this case God. How, then, could it be shown naturally that the conclusions of reason or empirically observed norms were the will of God and thus properly obligatory laws? Hobbes made the same criticism: If the laws of nature are simply rational theorems, then they are not properly laws at all and need the command of a superior to give them obligatory force.
Selden preferred to sidestep the problem by arguing that God had spoken directly to Adam and Noah; the natural law precepts delivered were handed down within the rabbinical tradition. Like many readers of Selden, Cumberland was less convinced by the first solution, but he saw the potential in the second argument.
The logical consequence of such evidence is to reinforce the idea that individuals are bound, both by their limitations and their potentiality, to a common social good. Given that the pursuit of the common good results in a greater fulfillment of human nature than the narrow pursuit of individual self-interest, the pursuit of the common good presents itself as the logical priority for individuals, given that their own interests will be best served as a result. Although Cumberland had derived this practical proposition from a scientific examination of the nature of things, he still needed to demonstrate that such a proposition could be considered the will of God.
Cumberland argued that it was possible to identify the sanctions attached to the law of nature, namely the structures of reward and punishment that God had ordained for the observance and dereliction of the law of nature. Punishments take various forms, ranging from the traditional scourges Edition: current; Page: [ xvi ] of conscience through to the state of war, a natural punishment for unreasonable, Hobbesian behavior. Rewards include simple happiness through to the benefits of peace, prosperity, and security. Cumberland stressed that such sanctions are not in themselves the causes of moral obligation.
The reception of De Legibus gives some indication of its impact upon the natural law tradition. The original Latin edition was published by the Little Britain bookseller Nathaneal Hooke and seen through the press by Hezekiah Burton; but as Burton admitted in his address to the reader, the job was not well done. As Linda Kirk has established, there are two variants of this edition, with slightly different definitions of the law of nature at the beginning of chapter 5. A fourth edition of the Latin text, based upon the edition, was published in by James Carson in Dublin.
Maxwell was prebendary of Connor and chaplain to Lord Carteret, then lord lieutenant of Ireland. Whatever the gains Maxwell hoped for, his Treatise of the Laws of Nature also registers considerable anxieties about the text. Towers also included considerable ancillary material, including translations of prefatory addresses that Maxwell had left out. These pieces have been included in appendixes 1 and 2 of this edition. In some instances multiple references occurring close together have been rationalized into one note. Book, chapter, page, and section numbers have been left in the form of the original note.
In his supplementary essays, Maxwell often both loosely paraphrases his source and quotes it verbatim in the original Greek or Latin; in those cases, the quotation is left out and only the reference is retained. Additional information is the work of the current editor. An Appendix , containing two Discourses , 1. Concerning the Immateriality of Thinking Substance. Printed by R. Phillips; and Sold by J. Knapton, in St. Senex, over against St. Osborne, and T. Longman, in Pater-Noster-Row , and T. May it please your Excellency,. That your Country may long enjoy the Advantage of your Example and your Counsels; that you and your Family may be long Happy in one another; and that, after a long and prosperous Life here, you may receive an eternal Reward of all your Labours hereafter, is the sincere Prayer of him, who is, with the profoundest respect,.
All these Circumstances conspire to make the Reading of his valuable Work, a laborious Task, which, therefore, few Readers will be at the Pains to do. I have added, likewise, at the End of most of the Chapters general Remarks, with the same View. The Appendix which I have added, consists of two Parts.
If we strain the String too high, it will crack, and then it is of no farther Service. In order to discover the true Foundation of all Religion and Piety, and what our Duty to God is, we must first know who he is; that is to say, we must first learn so to distinguish him from all other Beings, whether Real or Imaginary, as not to give his Glory to another. Thus the true God and the true Religion were Strangers among them all.
As for their Morality, I have likewise shewn how imperfect that was. Thus were their Notions defective, with respect to God, Religion, and Morality; and without the Knowledge of the true God it is as impossible to form a true Religion, as it is impossible for a blind Man to take a true Aim, or for an Architect to raise a firm Building without a Foundation.
This, therefore, is the Scope of my Introduction; for, as great a value as I set upon Reason, I would not over-rate her: Where she Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] convinces me, that she is a sufficient Guide, I will follow her Directions; but where she owns herself at a loss, and that another Guide is necessary, I will follow her Directions in the Choice of that Guide, among the Pretenders, and in explaining the Directions and Institutions given me by that Guide.
Thus is Reason justly subservient to, and consistent with, Religion; and thus, if our Practice be suitable, we make a right Use of both. There is only one thing more, with which I think it proper to acquaint the Reader, and I have done. It is plain, that they may believe in a God, who are ignorant of the true God, as was the Case of the Heathens.
But more than this is not necessary, in order to the Belief of a Revelation. Yes undoubtedly. And thus both parts of my Assertion are very consistent. Concerning the Imperfectness of the Heathen Morality ; from both which, the Usefulness of Revelation may appear. Logick conducts our Understanding in the Search after, and Delivery of, Truth.
The Societies are various, of which a Man may at the same Time be Edition: current; Page: [ 26 ] a Member, who may, therefore, be considered in as many various Political Lights. The Denyers of Providence, Atheists. Whoever does not consider himself, as Member of a Society, at whose Head God is , seems to me, to be truly an Atheist. For, whoever pretends to acknowledge a God , or universal Mind, considering him only Naturally , as the Soul of the World , and not Politically , as the supreme Governor there of, and so not acknowledging a Providence , a particular Providence, for, without that, a general Providence is an unintelligible Notion; as he cannot prove the Being of such a God, so neither does the Acknowledging him influence our Conduct, or answer any valuable Purpose in Life.
If God were the Soul of the World , and not its supreme Governor , it would be impossible for us to prove his Being , which we can discover, only from the Effects of his Wisdom, Power , and Goodness , in Forming and Governing the World. If you take away these, you may as well call him by the empty Names of Chance , or Fate , or Nature , or any Thing else, as well as God: Nor could the Acknowledgment of such a God influence our Conduct, any more than the Gods of Epicurus did his. Other Crimes, of which human Laws can take Notice, are sometimes committed so secretly , as to escape the Knowledge of those, who should put the Laws in Execution.
Human Wisdom cannot proportion Punishments to Crimes, because that depends upon such a through Knowledge, both of Things and Circumstances, as none but God has; the Pillory , being a far greater Punishment to some, than the Gallows is to others. All Crimes fall properly within his Cognizance; no Privacy excludes him; no Power can resist him; no Prejudice can byass him; and he, and he only , knows how to proportion Punishments to the Crimes, and to the Nature of the Sufferer, and to what the greatest Good of the Whole requires, which seems to be the Measure of the Intensenes sand Duration of Punishments.
Could such a Creator and Governor of the World, have given us Reason and Reflexion , with unbounded Prospects and Desires, with respect to Futurity and Eternity, with Anxieties and Doubts from thence arising innumerable, at the End of a short Farce to shut up the Scene in Death? A Farce , where the Wicked often thrive by their Vice, and the Good suffer, even on account of their Virtue. The plain Foundations of a distributive Justice, and due Order in this World, may lead us to conceive a further Building.
Where had the Virtues had their Theater, or whence their Names? Where had been Temperance, or Self-denial? Where Patience, Meekness, Magnanimity? Whence have these their Being? What Merit, except from Hardship? What Virtue without a Conflict, and the Encounter of such Enemies as arise both within, and from abroad? And since there is such Provision for her here, such Happiness, and such Advantages, even in this Life; how probable must it appear, that this providential Care is yet extended further to a succeeding Life and perfected Hereafter?
But without them Natural Religion would be but Matter of Ridicule. And, accordingly, it is an Article of natural Religion, which is antecedent to any Institution of Paganism, Judaism , or Christianity. And the Christian Doctrine, touching the Rewards and Punishments of a future Life, is so con-natural to the Mind of Man, which hath the Conscience of Good and Evil, so agreeable to his Reason, and his Notions of a God and Providence, that it has met with a general Reception, and Approbation.
Agreeably to these Sentiments, the generality of Pagan Religionists stiled the Soul Divine, of Kin to the Gods, a Part and Particle of God , deducing it from Heaven, and reducing it thither again, worshipping their Heroes and Benefactors. Porphyry de abst. And having so said, he threw it into the River. It is evident, that his making us capable of Happiness, was the Effect of his Goodness. It is the Will of God, that we should practise Religion. It is, therefore, Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] his Will, that we should know, and, knowing, acknowledge these his Perfections, and the Relation He and We , his dependent Creatures, bear to one another; that is, that we should pursue and promote, to our Power, those beneficent Ends, which he had in creating us, and other Beings like our-selves, capable of Happiness, and give him the Honour due to him, that is, that we should practise Virtue and Religion, which are, therefore, his Laws to us.
Let us, in the next Place, consider the several Parts of that Society of Rational Agents, of which God is at the Head; first, according to the Notion of the Pagans , and next, according to the Idea we have of it, by Revelation , and the Scriptures; for Truth, and Error, like all other Opposites, will best illustrate each other. For we can no otherwise come to the Knowledge of our-selves , in the political Sense, of our Duty , and the Obligations we lie under, without considering the Relation we stand in to the Kingdom of God , that great and holy Society, of which we are a Part; and to any other Society, if such there be, with which we may have to do; for it is impossible, to understand a Duty which is Relative , without first understanding the Terms of the Relation, to make use of a Logical Expression.
To begin then with the Pagan System. One intellectual Head of the Universe. Representing the Universe of rational Agents as but one political System, which is a fundamental Mistake. The Heathen Theologers, who do not acknowledge any such Society as the Church of God , represented the Universe of Rational Agents , as but one Political System , which is their prime fundamental Mistake.
Upon this fundamental Error, was grounded their whole Morality; and upon this Notion, That they were Fellow-Citizens with the Gods , their Practice was, doubtless, grounded of making new Gods , as it were by a right of Suffrage in Heaven it-self. Some Christian Writers have, in great Measure, adopted these Sentiments, not discerning the Difference between a Holy Divine Republick , and a Heathen Mundan System , heedlesly entertaining false Notions of the State of the Universe, and speaking the Language of Heathen Philosophers, which is irreconcileable with the Jewish , and Christian Religion.
From which our Author is not free. The System of all rational Agents, or the whole natural City of God. The System of all rational Agents, the Kingdom of God. But in these Respects they differ. The Heathens divided their system of rational Agents into 6 Classes, 1. The supreme God.
Subordinate Gods Invisible. The Word God , taken by the Heathens in a larger, and more refrained Sense. Visible , such as the 12 Dij majorum Gentium , namely, the 7 Planets, the 4 Elements, and the Earth, and such like. These several Orders of rational Beings, the Heroes only excepted, belong to the original Constitution of the Universe, in the Heathen Scheme. That all the Regions of the Universe may be replenished with proper Animals, and rational Inhabitants.
That there may be due Order amongst rational Agents, which requires some First, some Last, and some Middle, according to the usual Method of Nature, which gradually ascends. That the Gods might not be polluted, as it were, nor descend beneath their Majesty, in managing human Affairs by themselves. Of the Order of Demons. To manage in subserviency to the Gods Nature, Providence, and human Affairs. The Universe of rational Agents, being thus united into one friendly and harmonious System, constitutes one Monarchy thereof, which is a fundamental Pagan Mistake.
After which the Angel of Darkness, and his Disciples, shall go into a World of their own, where they shall receive the Punishments of their evil Deeds. Now all these Authors speak there only of the Religion of the Persians , but not a Syllable of the Religion of the Chaldeans , or Babylonians , concerning which is the present Question.
That those different Nations did not profess the same Religion, we shall see presently, the Persians being Magians , and the Chaldeans , or Babylonians, Sabians. Now it does not appear, that the Babylonians were ever of the Magian Sect; but that, from the earliest Times we have any Account of them, they were Polytheists , and Idolaters; and, more particularly, during the Time of the Jewish Captivity under them; how then could the Jews imbibe their Notion of the Unity of God , and aversion to Idolatry , from those who were themselves Polytheists , and Idolaters?
Joshua We are told 2 Kings Upon which Occasion, Daniel delivers himself thus to Belshazzar , Prideaux , in his Connexion, seems to me, to have given amuchmore probable Solution of that Affair. But so much for this Digression , which I hope the Reader will pardon. The Doctrine of Evil Demons, according to the Heathens.
Ye stand upon your Swords. Now this Doctrine of the Pagans , concerning Evil Demons , must, of necessity, fall in, either with the Manichean , or with the Christian , Edition: current; Page: [ 44 ] Scheme; with the Manichean , if they were originally constituted Evil; with the Christian , if they became such by an abuse of their own Liberty. Of Nemesis and the Furies , Ministers of divine Vengeance. Of the Sentiments of the Jews concerning evil Demons.
The Jews are said by Hulsius 28 and others, to acknowledge Angels of 3 Classes, 1. Separate Intelligences , who appear not in a corporeal Form, nor can be comprehended by bodily Senses, but only by prophetick Vision, and incompass the Throne of the Divine Majesty, such as Michael, Gabriel, Raphael.
Samael and his Armies, God cast them out of Heaven. And that himself, in Consort with his Fellow-Rebels, should be Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] like-minded, and therefore should chuse to make a total Revolt from God and their Duty, was not incompatible with their coelestial Condition; nor is it at all incredible, the like prodigiously-frantick Enormities being no Rarities amongst intelligent Agents.
Scriptures, which represent the Holy Angels, as originally the Inhabitants of Heaven. For whoever has any Veneration for God, will not count it a small Matter, to deify Evil Demons , and to pay them religious Worship. Yet this Worship of Demons was the Religion of popular Societies amongst the Heathens , as Plutarch plainly acknowledges, 38 there by giving a great Attestation to the Truth of Christianity , which chargeth upon Paganism , the Sacrificing unto, and having Fellowship with, Devils; and to the peculiar Excellency of the Christian Learning, which alone, to the Purpose, discovereth Satan.
For both Jews and Pagans notwithstanding their slender Notice of Evil Angels are far from knowing him as they ought, and so far as is needful to the Purpose of Piety and Sanctity. They were assured of their Existence from their Operations and Effects; and, from this Hypothesis, Plutarch gives an Account of the Apparitions to Brutus and Dio , upon which, after his Manner, he reflects finely. And who can doubt, but that those Learned Heathen Philosophers were in the Right, who suppose the antick and barbarous Rites of their Religion, to be the Worship of powerful evil Demons.
But yet these Aerial Demons are sometimes under penal Confinement in the Subterraneous Regions, as that Petition of theirs implies, Luk. Of Genij , or Guardian Angels. With respect to this Doctrine, the Heathens were divided in their Sentiments, some allowing a good-Genius , only to every Man, 40 others a good and a bad to each, 41 which Doctrine Mahomet has adopted. Heathenism , a Religion of Patron-Deities, and their Clients. With which the Church of Rome greatly Symbolizes.
Different Senses of the Word, Demon. Paul , Act. He seemeth to be a setter forth of strange Demons , that is, Gods. Sometimes it is taken in a stricter Sense, for a class of Beings between Gods and Heroes. Thus, according to the Heathens , were all things full, not of God , but of Gods; and they were guilty of the Worship of Demons , in both Senses of the Word, from which neither the Platonists , nor Pythagoreans , were free; but were great Promoters of it. As does that of many Christian Divines. The Scriptures, indeed, do acknowledge the holy Angels as a sort of Potentates superior to Man , and as occasionally subservient to the Divine Providence in the Government of the World; but not as sublunary Prefects of various Faculties, Offices, Places, Stations, and Persons, residing upon their several Charges.
A misunderstanding of Dan. This Matter is by more than human Appointment, it is nothing less than the Decree of the most High. For thus the Prophet, in his Interpretation of the Dream, interpreteth the Angels saying v. This is the Decree of the most High, which is come upon my Lord the King. Therefore the Angels saying is a Mode of expressing the Decree of the most High. But here is a clear express Testimony for the Superintendence of the Holy Angels, in subordination to the divine Providence. For, in the New-Testament, some of the Holy Angels are usually intituled Authorities, Thrones, Dominions, Principalities , and Powers , 51 with Christ, who created them, at their head; between which the Difference is no greater than this, that the Apostle considers them, as the several general Names and Notions of the most Eminent created Potentates in the Universe.
Peter , St. So Act.
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But 1. Will it follow, That the Notion was true, if they did believe it. But 3. What need was there, that an Angel should be sent to deliver St. Peter out of Prison, or St. Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] Beside, 4. But it cannot be thought, that every pious Person hath an Arch-Angel for his Guardian; therefore our Saviour speaketh not of such Guardian-Angels. The Angel of the Name and Presence of God. And from Eccles. Neither say thou before the Angel, that it was an Error; wherefore should God be angry at thy Voice, and destroy the Work of thine Hands?
Some infer a Guardian-Angel , but not justly. In Zech. This plain Hypothesis will enable us to form a true Notion of the Princes of Persia and Grecia , which are Parties in the Conflict of the Angelical Powers, which are spoken of in Daniel There is none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your Prince.
And these Angels conflict with each other, 61 as opposite Parties at Court, that have an Interest there. Arguments against their subordinate mundan Magistracy, and the Doctrine of the Guardian-Angel. The holy Angels belong not to the Polity of this World, of which they are, therefore, no Magistrates; which if they were, this World would be the City of God, and his Republick: Nor are they Guardian-Angels , Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] inseparably attending upon Men all their Days.
In Ezek. Agreeably whereunto, the invisible World is constituted; for the holy Angels are Sons of the divine Family , and live in Society as other Families do. How else can they constitute a Family , a City , a Church? The Angels, which minister to the welfare of the Just, usually go forth by Troops and Bands. But, if they convey single departed Souls in Troops, they, doubtless, minister to their welfare in this Life, in Troops also.
Numbers of them associate with us in our religious Assemblies, and are inspectors of our Behaviour there. This Principle, therefore, destroys the Heathenish sublunary Magistracy of the holy Angels, and of the Angel-Guardian , common to all Mankind. Yet we must acknowledge the holy Angels general Guardianship of Mankind in general.
The evil Demons are under Laws and Government; God is the Founder and supreme Governor of the World; as he hath an universal Dominion, so he exercises that Right in a Superintendence of all, as the Sovereign Disposer of the private and publick Affairs of Men. The Scripture -Theology representeth God , as the universal Inspector, to the meanest Sparrow, Protector, and Benefactor; the sole Arbiter of our Fate, upon whose Pleasure our well, or ill, being intirely depends.
But of such Political Societies, the Scriptures know nothing, unless we suppose them in the Kingdom of Darkness, which consisteth of Heathen Mankind, and of the Rulers of the Darkness of this World; nor are these Political Societies consistent with true Religion, for they manifestly imply and introduce Idolatry , and Demonolatry , by appropriating to them divine Honours, and subjecting themselves to them, taking them from their immediate Dependence upon, and Addresses to, God.
To bring what I have been laying down to a point. The true God was not the Deity of Religion amongst the Heathens. Summanus Summus deorum Manium was the proper Name of Jupiter Capitolinus himself; and denoteth what he was in the best Notion of him, only the chief of the Heathen Gods. This the Apostle affirms of them, v. The Dispute between these two Theologies, is a Dispute to which of these two Catholick Systems the true supreme God belongeth.
Both Theologies agree, that he cannot belong to both these Catholick Systems, which are manifestly inconsistent. And the Hypothesis of this holy Society is of a ruinous Nature to their Whole, to the supreme Deity of their Religion, to their Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] native State of Mankind, which they suppose to be by Nature that of Fellow-Citizens with, Domesticks and Sons of, God; which is built upon a false imaginary State of the Universe. The Rules of Piety among the Stoicks. Their Principles shall be extracted from Epictetus, M.
Antoninus, Seneca , and Plutarch; and, to do them Justice, we shall begin with what is excellent in their Doctrine. The Law of their Subjection to Jupiter they consider as an Obligation, both to active and passive Obedience , discarding all Externals, the Body, Riches, Fame, Empire; they made it their Business to be, and to do, what was agreeable to Nature , to our proper Nature, which is Rational, Social, Human; to the Will of the governing Nature of the Universe; to the governing right Reason of Jove , which is a Law; and being Philosophers , they were the Interpreters of Nature, and of the Will of God.
To them that ask, where hast thou seen the Gods, or whence is thine Assurance of their Existence whom thou worshippest? From those Things that are Indications of the Power of the Gods, I am assured of their Existence, and therefore worship them. Their Rules of Duty to themselves. What say the Stoicks doth the divine Law command? To keep the Things that are our own, and not to challenge to our-selves the Things of others; but, if granted to us, to use them; if not granted to us, not to desire them; when taken away, to restore them cheerfully, and to be thankful for the Time that we have had the Use of them.
Hast thou not a Commandment from Jupiter? Hath he not given thee thine own Things, exempt from Prohibition and Impediment, the other Things, which are not thine own, liable to Prohibition and Impediment? What Commandment therefore, what Prescript hast thou brought from him? The Things that are thine own, keep by all means, desire not the Things that belong to others. Faithfulness is thine own, who can take away such Things as these, who shall hinder thee from using them beside thy-self?
When thou mindest the Things that are not thine own, thou hast lost the Things that are thine own. Man must do what his Reason and Mind enjoyneth, which is a Decerption from Jupiter , and which Jupiter a severe Exacter of Virtue hath given him to be his Leader and Prefect. Their Rules of Humanity. In the next place, I am nearly allied to those other Parts, that are of the same Kind. The Mind of the Universe 1 is Social; wherefore the principal thing intended in the Constitution of Men, is the social Design, which is the End and Good, and ought to be the Scope, of Man; and whatever Practice of his hath not reference immediately, or remotely to the social Design, destroyeth the Uniformity of Life, and is Seditious; as a factious Person, among the People, divideth his own Party from the common Consent.
We ought not to be hurried away by such Motions, as are unsocial, but to pass from one social Practice to another, with mindfulness of God; to treat Men socially, according to the natural Law of Fellowship, kindly and justly. To Man that is rational and social, it is proper to do nothing, but what the Reason of his regial and legislative part suggests for the Good of Men. He ought to love them truly and from the heart, to take care of the Welfare of all Men, to worship and praise the Gods, and to do good to Men, to bear with them, forbearing to injure them, to do them good unweariedly, persisting in an uninterrupted Series of good Actions, accounting Edition: current; Page: [ 71 ] Beneficence to others, his own Emolument and because they are Members of the same Body a doing good to himself.
The Joy of a Man is to do what properly belongeth to a Man; and it properly belongeth to a Man, to be kindly affected to those of the same Tribe, or Kindred. It is proper and agreeable to a Man, to love those that off end against him, for by Nature they are his Friends and Kinsmen; to bear good-Will to them that hate and disparage him; not to be angry with the Stupid and Ungrateful, but to take care of them; to be friendly and benevolent to every Man: Men are made for one another; teach them better, or bear with them. A Branch, cut off from Continuity with its Neighbour-Branch, is necessarily cut off from the whole Tree; a Man divideth himself from his Neighbour, hating him, and having an Aversion from him, yet knoweth not, that at the same Time he divideth himself from the whole Body.
But their Institution is, in great Measure, unpopular and irreligious, subverting Religion, 1. By discarding future Rewards and Punishments. So far excellently well, and the bright Side of Stoicism; but now follows its dark Side, which, in consequence at least, destroyeth its better part. The Stoicks are also extremely Irreligious , in depriving the supreme Governor of distributive Justice; in ascribing to him an extravagant indulgent Goodness, destructive to the true Use of Sacrifices, methods of Atonement, penitential Sorrow, and the pious Fear of a Deity.
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Secondly, they ridicule the Fear of Death , explode the laudable Usage of Burying the Dead , and of Mourning for them; all which is absurdly unpopular and irreligious. And allowing, nay, in some Cases, enjoyning Self-murder. Live; doth it not please you? You may return whence you came. By their denying Pain to be an Evil. Doth sensitive Pain, or Pleasure, touch thee? Let Sense look to it, let the Body and bodily Members make it their care, if they can, that they suffer not; and when they suffer, let them complain, if they can, and judge that Pain is Evil.
The Soul may keep her proper Tranquillity and Serenity, and not suppose it Evil. But, if they really can abstract the Mind from all sympathizing with the Body, and from uneasiness by the Pains of it, whence is it, that they cannot keep her from Disturbance by the Humours of the Body? For they acknowledge themselves as liable as other Mortals to Fevers, Ravings, and Madness. Whence is it, that, upon account of extremity of Pain, they think it decent, to take away their own Lives?
Doth he therefore threaten nothing to me?
If I look upon these Things as nothing to me, he threatneth nothing to me. But, if I fear any of them, he threatneth me. Is thy Son dead? Thy Son is dead. Is that all? That is all. If thine Hearing he incommoded, what is that to thee? No ill News can come to thee from Rome, for what Evil can befal thee there, where thou art not? Banishment is but to be elsewhere. Dost thou want Bread? May we not desire Health? In the second Notion of Means , the Evils, commonly so reputed, may be Good, and the good Things, commonly so reputed, may be Evils; and usually are, not helps, but hindrances, to our true Perfection and Happiness in a future State.
Their regal and happy Estate, and Self-sufficiency. Discarding, therefore, the many Things, they place their one Thing, and their All, in cultivating their intelligent free-agent Nature; in its being Virtuous, and such as the proper Nature of Man requireth; thus attaining a State of Felicity without Impediment, or danger of Misfortune, never failing of what they desire, nor falling into what they have an Aversion to; living, therefore, in a State of perfect Liberty , which they account the greatest Good.
Being obnoxious to no superior Power, they are all Kings. I seek Good and Evil within, only in mine own Things, i. This is the State and Character of a Philosopher, he looketh for all his Utility and Damage from himself. If another can hurt me, then I do nothing: If I expect that another help me, then I am nothing. If he supposeth it a grand Evil, or any Evil at all, he will be ridiculous, and no more Virtuous, accounting Wood and Stone, and the Death of Mortals, some great Matters.
Not private Calamities , that befall himself, or his Relations. For, without any title to a future Happiness, the Wise-Man is happy in the midst of Torments; his Happiness receives no addition from Health, Ease, and Pleasures, nor any diminution from their opposites. None commiserate, but the Vain and Foolish. It is not the Property of a Man, to be exorable, or placable. For Fear and Desire are truly said to be divine Virtues, if their Objects be Things divine; and to sympathize with others in their Joys and Sorrows, is inseparable from true Benevolence.
But the Stoicks admit of no sympathizing Sorrow, but in political Appearance. Arrogance, with respect to the Gods, as well as Men. For Virtue, the true and the sole cause of Happiness, is equal in them all; it is not capable of increase, nor diminution, and as for Externals, which are of no consideration, they make no disparity. Time also maketh no disparity. In Virtue Jupiter doth not transcend Dio.
But is not Jupiter the more Powerful and Opulent? Do you inquire of the difference between a Wise-Man and the Gods? The Gods will exist a longer Time. In this and some other respects, the Wise-Man transcendeth Jupiter , and he admireth himself above him. The Wise-Man seeeth and contemneth all Things which others possess, with as equal a Mind as Jupiter: And upon this Account more admireth himself; Jupiter cannot make use of them, the Wise-Man will not.
If this be not rampant Luciferian Pride, I know not what is. Their haughty Temper appears, not only in their Demeanour towards Jupiter , but in their carriage to their Civil Governors. Who is there, that when he seeth me, doth not suppose, that he seeth his Lord and King? What is Caesar to a Cynick , or the Proconsul, or any other, save only Jupiter , that sent him down, and whom he serveth? Of their Transcendentals and passive Obedience to the divine Will. For he is Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] a Free-Man, to whom all Things happen according to his Mind, and none can be his hindrance; naturally I would have all Things to happen, as I please; but to be learned, is to learn to will all Things to be as they are.
Will nothing but what God willeth, and none can hinder thee; none can force thee, no more than Jupiter. Is it his Will, that I should be in a Fever? It is my Will. Is it his Will, that I should obtain any Thing? Is it not his Will? It is not mine. Who can now hinder me, or force me against mine own Mind? Seek not, that Events should be as thou willest; but will them to be as they are, and thou canst not fail to be prosperous.
Take me and throw me where thou wilt, I am indifferent. Their Passive Obedience teaches them, indeed, to suffer Afflictions, but not to act in a becoming Manner in such a State, in Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] which the grand Duties of Piety are, the humbling our-selves under the divine Hand, searching and trying our Ways, practice of Repentance, and improving in Devotion.
At length erect thy Neck, as one out of Servitude, fearing nothing that can happen: Dare to lift up thine Eyes to God and say, Use me hereafter to whatsoever thou pleasest, I am of the same Mind with thee, I am equal to any Thing. Their Passive Obedience is founded upon bad Principles. That which maketh not the Man worse, which doth not involve him in any Crime, doth not make his Life the worse, nor can it hurt him.
All Things that befall Men, are allotted them by that Whole, or Universe, whereof they are a part; and that is good for every one, which the Nature of the whole bringeth upon every one. Whatever shall come to pass, the World loveth to have it so: I say therefore to the World, I concur with thee in Affection, and love to have it so. And, if we agree not with the Stoicks touching Passive Obedience , which is the top flower of their Philosophy, nor think it safe to rely upon the Maxims of the Heathen Philosophers , both because they are Heathens and Philosophers , i.
Teachers of unpopular Doctrines, we are not likely to entertain a late Conceit, That all the Agenda in Christianity, the two Sacraments excepted, are nothing but what was taught before by the Moral Philosophers. Their monstrously absurd Conceits. Wickedness doth not at all hurt the World.
All that offend, it is against their Will. All Men miss of the Truth against their Will. Nothing is hurtful to a part, which is for the good of the whole.
What is not hurtful to the City, hurteth not a Citizen. Bad Men are neither affected with Benefits, nor have they any Benefactors, nor are they guilty of neglecting their Benefactors. Their gross Immoralities. Socratici Cinaedi were proverbial.
Both the Popular and Philosophical Pagans were addicted to this Vice. Socrates and Cato communicated their Wives to their Friends. As for Socrates , he has had the Happiness of eloquent Apologists. Christianity forbiddeth common and customary Swearing , whether by Creatures, or by the Deity; and all irreligious Swearing.
But no Moral Philosophers ever prohibited Swearing by the Creatures. Clinias the Pythagorean , in a Suit depending before the Judge, might have freed himself from a Fine of three Talents, by taking a true and just Oath: But he chose rather to pay the Mulct, than to take the Oath; so great a respect had these Pythagoreans for their own Philosophical Institution, and so little for Civil Government. For it is well known, that they were not so shy of Swearing by the Master of their Institution , as Religionists Swear by their God: And Hierocles , who hath given many wise Cautions touching the Use of Oaths, with respect to the Honour of the Gods, justifieth their Practice.
The Epicurean Tenets of Morality. Parker in a few Words. Metrodorus , his favourite Disciple, made the Belly, the only Seat of Happiness. So that all the boasted Happiness of the Epicureans , without a future State, was equally vain and insecure , which at once effectually overthrows it; shocking us, even in the Enjoyment of what is mean and low, with the Fears of losing even that. And then, to comfort us under Edition: current; Page: [ 92 ] all the Miseries of Life, they throw out a parcel of Falshoods and Subtleties.
That Pain is short, if great; light, if long , which will afford but very little Relief to a Man under those Chronical Diseases of great Torture, Gout and Stone. That we must lop off the Fear of future Evils, and the Remembrance of those which are past. Easily said! The Difficulty lies in the Application. As if we could either fly from, or resist, Pain, as a Man does his Enemy. Of a piece with these, are their Consolations against the Fear of Death; against which nothing is a solid Comfort, in the midst of our present Enjoyments, but the well-grounded Hopes of a happy Immortality.
How ridiculous an Antidote is it against that which takes away all our Enjoyments, to tell us, That, when that comes, it cannot hurt us, because when that is, we are not? Self-Love and the Fear of Annihilation are Instincts too powerful to be baffled by such a subtlety. According to this Scheme, if we have all the Enjoyment in Life we can expect, we lose Happiness in a little Time after we come to know what it is, of which too we are in continual Apprehensions; but the Wretched come into the World, only to lament and leave it; than which how much better would it be, not to have been born.
But, say they, we ought to bear with Patience what we cannot avoid. And, as for the Time to come, he, knowing that nothing shall be but what has been, understands all future Events as if present; so that a wise Man, partly by Memory, partly by Foresight, may extend his short Life to all Ages of the World.
His other Arguments, to persuade us to be content with our Condition, are as ineffectual. Secondly, The Epicureans destroy all Virtue , by making it wholly subservient to sensual Pleasure, making Virtue the Means , and Sensuality Edition: current; Page: [ 94 ] the End; so that what we now call Vice would be Virtue, if it promoted the Delights of the Body the more effectually of the two.
A hopeful Foundation of Morality! If sensual Pleasures be the chief Good , he must be happiest, that enjoys them most, and wisest, that procures them most; and then Apicius will be a happier and wiser Man than Pythagoras, Socrates , or Plato. All Virtue, according to them, any farther than it promotes their own sensual Pleasure, is owing only to Custom, popular Opinion, and the Prejudices of Education, which a wise Man, say they, must comply with, in order to promote his own Ends. And, if there be no obligation to Justice, there can be no place for Fortitude , which is only in defence of an honest and a just Cause, separated from which it is Folly , and in opposition to it, Oppression.
Their Discipline and Institution had a considerable effect upon some of themselves; some of the Philosophers were great Examples of the Virtue which they taught, and they made some few Converts from Debauchery to Philosophy; and some few Commonwealths have had their Laws from Philosophers. The mighty Prejudices, which they have done to the Interests of it, clearly enough appear in the accounts already given; for the further setting of which in a clear Light, we will here take a brief Survey, both of their moral Learning and of their Life.
The sublimer sort of them distributed the Virtues into three Kinds, the Ethical, Political , and Divine. But to be thus unapprehensive of Danger, is Folly and Fool-hardiness; it is as unnatural, as it is irreligious, and ruinous to all true Virtue and Goodness. They thus impiously deified themselves, and their Virtue, by their self-Sufficiency, self-Security , and Confidence. Philosophy setteth them intirely in the Fortress of Virtue, above Grief and Fear. And from the excessive Pride of the Stoicks. They were as highly conceited of their own Merits, as Diogenes was, who fancied, that he merited his Alms.
Much of the Stoical Philosophy is a rant and huff of Pride; the greatness and height of Mind, to which they pretend, is bloated and unsound; and the Constancy of their Wise-Man is a System of such Maxims, as are the very Quintessence of Pride. The Wise-Man can suffer no Evil. A Contumely is a Contempt, and thence hath its Name; which the Wise-Man doth not look upon as belonging to him, who knows his own Greatness. He thinketh also, that Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] all others are so much inferiour, that they have not boldness to despise Things so high above them.
Nor is there any Thing more distastful to a truly pious Mind, than the haughty Pharisaical Humour of these Philosophick-Pagan Magnificoes swaggering with their Virtue , their Magnitude , their Celsitude , their Altitude , their Fortitude , their Beatitude. Pride suggested that Stoical Maxim of Heraclitus.
If thou ask, What that is?